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Invited researcher James Ehrich Butler
Contract number
Time span of the project
Head of the laboratory

As of 15.02.2021

Number of staff members
scientific publications
Objects of intellectual property
General information

Name of the project: Semiconductive CVD diamond for powerful high-frequency electronic devices

Strategy for Scientific and Technological Development Priority Level: a

Goals and objectives
Research directions:

  • Research of conditions of growth of epitaxial layer of electronic quality diamonds
  • Research of doping and demonstration of of delta-doped monocrystalline diamonds and development of active electronic devices based on semiconductive CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) diamonds working at high power and high frequency

Project objective:

Developing a technology allowing to produce a diamond semiconductive and suitable for creation of devices with the following qualities or a combination of those: high working power, high frequency, ability to operate at high temperatures and/or in aggressive environments

The practical value of the study
  • We have created a brand new type of reactors using which we can obtain boron-doped delta layer of CVD diamond. A special gas supply system has been developed for the reactor, it allows to provide a mixture of six gases to the reactor and to rapidly switch to another composition of gas mix and laminar flow of gases in the reaction chamber.
  • Our researchers have proposed and mathematically substantiated a new structure of delta-doped channel for field transistors. It is based on a new distribution profile for boron concentration in the channel that has two peaks close to each other (the distance is approximately 3 nm). We have shown that such a doping profile leads to 60% increase in mobility and conductivity of the channel compared to channels having a single peak.
  • We have a technology that allows to – in the process of growing CVD diamonds - heavily boron doped layers that have thickness of 1-2 nm with (5-10) 1020 cm 3 concentration of boron, having record high hole mobility 300 сm2/Vs with high surface concentration of charge carriers 1013 cm-2. High hole mobility is achieved by major (by four order of magnitude) increase of drop of boron concentration between doped and non-doped diamond on the transition layer of fractions of nanometer. High concentration of charge carriers is achieved by complete ionization of the alloy. The developed technology of creating a thin conductive in the depth of a diamond includes a sequence consisting of growing a CVD diamond in gas mixes with rapidly changing composition containing hydrogen and methane, doping supplement (boron) and boron getter (oxygen or serum). Usage of this technology will allow to produce diamond materials with characteristics suitable for creation of electronic devices of diamonds.
  • Our team has developed a field transistor based on doped delta-layer of diamond including transistors with Schottky barriers. A model transistor with delta-layer has been created that allows to adjust for various laws of mobility and incomplete ionization in different regions of the transistor's structure. We have examined correlation between depth of delta-layer Volt-Ampere characteristics Volt-Farad characteristics of the transistor. It has been determined that quality of clearing of a transistor's contacts, stock and drain critically affects main characteristics of the transistor.

Implemented results of research:

The CVD reactor created by the laboratory is now used for research funded by the Russian Scientific Foundation grants.

Education and career development:

  • 17 young scientists, specialists, and tutors have completed occupational retraining. Participants of the retraining programs worked for Science and Production Enterprise «Istok» named after A.I.Shokin, Institute of Physics of Microstructures of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Volzhskiy State Institute of Marine Transport, Lobachevskiy Nizhniy Novgorod State University, Ioffe Institute.
  • Members of our team have defended 1 doctoral and 4 candidate dissertations
  • We have developed lecture courses for Saint Petersburg Electrotechnical University («History and Methodology of Nanotehnology», «Wide-zone diamond-like materials and devices based on them») and Lobachevskiy Nizhniy Novgorod State University («Technological basics of plasma technologies», «Laboratory case study of plasma physics»). We have also modernized the «Physics gas discharge»,
  • Our employees have given lectures on the grounds of the Znanie-NN Science and Education Center.


National Institute of Standards and Technology (USA) - collaboration in research of characteristics of samples of layers of CVD diamond that have been delta-doped with boron.

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A.L. Vikharev, A.M. Gorbachev, M.A. Lobaev, A.B. Muchnikov, D.B. Radishev, V.A. Isaev, V.V. Chernov, S.A. Bogdanov, M.N. Drozdov, J.E. Butler
Novel microwave plasma assisted CVD reactor for diamond delta doping, Physica Status Solidi RRL, 2016, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 324-327
A.B. Muchnikov, A.L. Vikharev, J.E. Butler, V.V. Chernov, V.A. Isaev, S.A. Bogdanov, A.I. Okhapkin, P.A. Yunin, and Y.N. Drozdov
Homoepitaxial growth of CVD diamond after ICP pretreatment, Physica Status Solidi A, 2015, Volume 212, Issue 11, Pages 2572-2577
S.A. Bogdanov, A.L. Vikharev, M.N. Drozdov, D.B. Radishev
Synthesis of thick and high-quality homoepitaxial diamond with high boron doping level: Oxygen effect, Diamond and Related Materials, April 2017, Volume 74, Pages 59–64
M.A. Lobaev, A.M. Gorbachev, S.A. Bogdanov, A.L. Vikharev, D.B. Radishev, V.A. Isaev, V.V. Chernov, M.N. Drozdov
Influence of CVD diamond growth conditions on nitrogen incorporation, Diamond and Related Materials, February 2017, Volume 72 Pages 1–6
M.A. Lobaev, A.M. Gorbachev, A.L. Vikharev, V.A. Isaev, D.B. Radishev, S.A. Bogdanov, M.N. Drozdov, P.A. Yunin, and J.E. Butler
Investigation of boron incorporation in delta doped diamond layers by secondary ion mass spectrometry, Thin Solid Films, May 2018, Volume 653, Pages 215-222
M.A. Lobaev, D.B. Radishev, A.M. Gorbachev, A.L. Vikharev, M.N. Drozdov
Investigation of microwave plasma during diamond doping by phosphorus using optical emission spectroscopy, Physica Status Solidi (a), 2019, Volume 216, Issue 21, 1900234
M.A. Lobaev, A.M. Gorbachev, A.L. Vikharev, D.B. Radishev, V.A. Isaev, S.A. Bogdanov, M.N. Drozdov, P.A. Yunin and J.E. Butler
Butler, Misorientation Angle Dependence of Boron Incorporation Into CVD Diamond Delta Layers, Physica Status Solidi B, 2019, Volume 256, Issue 7, 1800606
A.L. Vikharev, M.A. Lobaev, A.M. Gorbachev, D.B. Radishev, V.A. Isaev, S.A. Bogdanov
Investigation of homoepitaxial growth by microwave plasma CVD providing high growth rate and high quality of diamond simultaneously, Materials Today Communications, 2020, March, Volume 22, 100816
M.A. Lobaev, D.B. Radishev, S.A. Bogdanov, A.L. Vikharev, A.M. Gorbachev, V.A. Isaev, S.A. Kraev, A.I. Okhapkin, E.A. Arkhipova, M.N. Drozdov, V.I. Shashkin
Diamond p–i–n Diode with Nitrogen Containing Intrinsic Region for the Study of NV Center Electroluminescence, Physica Status Solidi RRL, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 11, 2000347
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